Primary Sources:

German History in Documents and Images: Nazi Germany:

Directive No. 21 Operation Barbarossa (December 18, 1940)

Source of English translation: “Führer’s Directive” (December 18, 1940). In United States Department of State, Documents on German Foreign Policy: From the Archives of the German Foreign Ministry. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1957-1964. Series D (1939-1945), The War Years, Volume 11: February 1 – June 22, 1941. Document 532, pp. 899-902. (English translation accredited to US Department of State Division of Language Services)

- The Army High Command’s Plan for Operation Barbarossa: Cartographic Illustration of the Planned Strategy and the Actual Strategy Implemented (1941) Image.

Invasion of the Soviet Union: A Group of German Tanks before their Deployment (June 22, 1941) Summary & Image.

Excerpt from Himmler’s Speech to the SS-Gruppenführer at Posen (October 4, 1943)

Source of English translation: Excerpt of Himmler’s Speech to the SS-Gruppenführer at Posen (October 4, 1943). In United States Chief Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality, Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Volume IV. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1946, Document 1919-PS [Speech of the Reichsführer-SS at the Meeting of SS Major-Generals at Posen, October 4th, 1963], pp. 558-59 and 570-72. (English translation attributed to Nuremberg staff.) Edited by GHI staff.

Directives for the Treatment of Political Commissars ("Commissar Order") (June 6, 1941)

Source of English translation: Directives for the Treatment of Political Commissars [Commissar Order] (June 6, 1941), U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD, Nuremberg Trial, National Archives Record Group 238m, Entry 175, Box 27, NOKW-1076.

An SS Member Signs the Oath of Loyalty to Hitler at a Mass Rally on the People’s Day of Mourning (February 25, 1934) image.

Hitler's Bodyguard Regiment [SS-Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler] during a Six-Day Deployment (1936) Image.

Secondary Sources:

- Muller, Rolf-Dieter, Janice W. Ancker, and Roger Cirillo. Hitler's Wehrmacht, 1935--1945. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 2016.

- Ziegler, Herbert F. Nazi Germany's New Aristocracy: The SS Leadership,1925-1939. Princeton University Press, 1989.

- Stein, George H. Hitler's Elite Guard: The Waffen SS, 1939 - 1945. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1966.

- Wegner, Bernd. The Waffen SS: Organization, Ideology, and Function. Trans. Webster, Ronald. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Basil Blackwell Ltd, 1990.